When I think about Madagascar what comes in mind is the animal movie animation comedy of 2005. Speaking of comedies, make sure to watch Virtual Colleagues episode 6. Part three of African Islands takes a look at two Islands; Mayotte and Madagascar. The article dissects:
- The islands position on renewable energy
- The challenges
- Renewable energy policies
- Future energy endeavors
Renewables in Madagascar
Madagascar is the largest African island (land mass) with a population of 27,691,018 (as of 2020)  and a projected population of 35,591,943 by 2030 .
Only 24.1% of the population had access to electricity by 2017. The total primary energy supply was 85% renewable sources. The remaining 15% of primary energy supply consisted of 11% gas and 4% oil.. By 2017, 99% was from bioenergy and 1% from hydroelectricity sources. In 2019, the renewables made up 24% of the installed capacity and in the year prior, it made up 55% of the energy generation in the year prior. Of the 24% installed renewable capacity, hydroelectricity technologies made up 83% and solar made up 17% .
The government has implemented tax incentives to implement renewable technologies as of 2015. The Tax Code of 2015 provided fiscal incentives for investors in renewable energy such as:
- A reduction in corporate income tax for investments in renewable energy technologies equivalent to 50% of the initial investment
- Equipment used in the generation of renewable energy are exempt from VAT. The equipment that are exempt include hydropower generators, solar PV panels, wind power generators, solar water heaters
- Investment in equipment apart from buildings can be depreciated at an accelerated rate of 30% of the net value 
In addition the Madagascan government has set targets for 2030 and 2050. They goals of reaching 79% renewable electricity by 2030 and 100% renewable energy by 2050 .
To further the prospects of the inhabitants of Madagascar, there must be development of the national electricity grid as the inhabitants have no access to a countrywide grid. JIRAMA is the national utility company which operates the electricity grids. The grids are only located around the largest towns with the most development. Rural areas have lower population densities, hence there has been less emphasis on the widescale electrification of such areas. Decentralized grid solutions will most likely be implemented to provide electricity to these areas in the future.
If private developers hoped to take on such decentralized projects, government legislation present potential issues. Due to the size of the national grid, the national power utility JIRAMA has been reluctant to offer feed-in tariffs that would attract such investors. There are currently no feed-in legislations in place and it is not a prominent issue on the government’s agenda. Only 2 small hydro power plant operators have been able to obtain feed-in tariffs .
Renewables in Mayotte
Mayotte is a French sovereign territory located in the Indian Ocean. As of 2020, the island inhabited a population of 272,813  people and are projected to have a population of 342,898 by 2030 . With a projected population ‘boom’ of 25.7%, increasing pressure on the current energy infrastructure is almost inevitable.
As of 2017, the total primary energy supply was 100% renewable, which is commendable considering that in 2012, renewable energy made up only 8% of the total energy supply. This 92% growth in that energy supply share can be attributed wholly to solar technologies. Solar technologies in 2019 accounted for 100% of the installed renewable capacity but made up 13% of the total installed capacity on the island .
Unfortunately, there is currently not enough literature available to explore Mayotte’s current situation in as much depth as the aforementioned nations. The most recent project that the nation has undertaken was the installation of a 7.4MW battery storage by the French renewable energy producer Albioma SA. The battery storage will enable load balancing and is expected to be operational from early 2021 .
 – Population of Madagascar 2020 – PopulationPyramid.net [Last visited: 4 January 2021]
 – Madagascar_Africa_RE_SP.pdf (irena.org) [Last visited: 4 January 2021]
 – Tax incentives for renewable energy – Policies – IEA [Last visited: 4 January 2021]  – Madagascar Energy Situation – energypedia.info